4. The Principles of TCM
According to TCM, illness arises because of specific yin-yang imbalances of the Functional Entities. The functional entities are the Five Fundamental Substances. These are Qi, Xue (Blood), Jinye (Body Fluids), Jing (Essence), and Shen (Spirit). The Three Yang Principles are: Exterior, Excess, and Heat. The Three Yin Principle qualities are: Cold, Deficiency and Interior.
Yin and Yang not only meant to apply to symptom characteristics, they also apply to human traits. For the TCM practitioner, it’s important to fully understand the constitution of the patient. Yang characteristics: active, positive, brightness, heaven, south slope, sunshine, fire, hardness, male, dryness, day-time, upward seeking, restless, producing, hot, even numbers, and dominant aspects of things. Yin characteristics: passive, negative, darkness, earth, north slope, cloudy, water, softness, female, moisture, night-time, downward seeking, slowness, consuming, cold, odd numbers, and docile aspects of things.